Category Archives: Hacking

Maischebottich Severin EA 3653…

wer zuhause bier braut benötigt neben viel zeit und geduld auch die nötige ausrüstung. etwas mehr der letzteren wenn man direkt mit malz arbeitet.
hier fällt der arbeitsschritt des maischens an.

fürs maischen und würze kochen habe ich mir einen severin einkochautomat (3653) besorgt. das gerät kostet 70 euro und hat die richtige grösse. mit 29 litern fassungsvermögen geht sich ein 20 liter sud gut aus.

es gibt nur ein kleines problem, den überhitzungsschutz. dieser verhindert dass dickflüssige flüssigkeiten im einkochautomat erhitzt werden. er löst aus und das heizelement lässt sich für ein paar stunden nicht zum arbeiten überreden. um maische gut verarbeiten zu können muss man den überhitzungsschutz deaktivieren.

die gebrauchsanweisung zitiert:

Überhitzungsschutz:
Das Gerät ist durch einen speziellen Übertemperaturbegrenzer vor Überhitzung geschützt. Sollte der Überhitzungsschutz das Gerät abschalten, ziehen Sie den Netzstecker und lassen Sie das Gerät abkühlen. Anschließend ist das Gerät wieder funktionsbereit.
Achtung: Der Einkochautomat ist nur zur Erwärmung von Flüssigkeiten ausgelegt. Dickflüssige Speisen dürfen nicht erhitzt werden, da durch die ungleichmäßige Wärmeabnahme der Überhitzungsschutz das Gerät abschalten kann. Reklamationen aus diesem Grund können daher verständlicherweise nicht anerkannt werden.

das habe ich gelesen, nachdem mir der erste einkochautomat beim maischen den dienst quittiert hat und ich diesen beim händler gegen einen neuen ausgetauscht hatte.
nachdem ich wieder dasselbe gerät hatte, musste ich einen weg um den überhitzungsschutz finden. der stand im weg zwischen mir und meinem bier – das geht nicht. ergo überhitzungsschutz deaktivieren…

hier wird beschrieben wie man das macht. Continue reading Maischebottich Severin EA 3653…

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Integrating android devices into the torrent landscape…

Transdroid Screenshot on ICS (Android 4.0)
i’m using bittorrent for downloading. more precisely the transmission daemon on my home server for the heavy lifting (downloading torrents). to administer the downloads the web frontend is perfect. in the background runs the transmission daemon which handles the torrents and accepts requests of all sorts of clients. you can even pass magnet links you clicked, from your desktop to the remote daemon with a little hacking.

To get the same comfort for your android device (phone or tablet), you need an app. i’m using transdroid, which currently is NOT available in the google play store (former android market). get the latest transdroid apk here.

Transdroid download link
Before you install transdroid you might want to read a little about the app on the transdroid website. Further you need to allow apps from ‘unknown sources’ in your android settings. Download the app via the link above or the QR-code (get a qr-code reader here).

Continue reading Integrating android devices into the torrent landscape…

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RFID Door Opener…

recently i finished my latest project: a RFID Door Opener.

besides the fun while hacking it, it improves the security of the door. since it’s not an outside door but the door to the garage, it’s construction does not allow to mount a more secure lock. so locking it from the outside when leaving is a bit bothersome.
the new auto-lock feature, which allows the door to auto-lock itself, saves some time and works around the lazy user, who wouldn’t have locked it.
additionally it is now easy to add or remove the right of access by adding or deleting the RFID’s unique number from the system. revoking someone’s right of access is far more difficult with a normal key.

beside an arduino i’m using an easydriver to drive the stepper and a RFID reader from seeedstudio.

below you can see the schematics of the setup. the ends marked with Ard X go to a port of the arduino, which is the brain of the lock:

Schematics for the build
Schematics for the build

edit: since i’ve been asked what transistors i used for this build i’ll tell you:
as PNP transistor i’m using a ‘mje2955T‘, as NPN i’m using a ‘bc547‘.
it’s important to have the two different transistor types NPN and PNP.
NPN is the one closer to ‘Ard6’ and the PNP is the one switching the 12V power supply for the easydriver. the most important part is that the second transistor, switching the easy driver, will only work if you’re using a PNP transistor. these transistors switch when they get pulled to ground.

Code can be found on github and here:


/**
 * door lock application (c) 2011 Florian Klien
 * some code parts are borrowed from different authors 😉 thx
 */

#include <NewSoftSerial.h>

#define rxPin 2
#define txPin 3

// door defs

#define DOOR_SENS  3 // analog
#define DRIVER_SWITCH 6
#define DOOR_SW 2 // analog

// motor defs
#define DIR_PIN 7
#define STEP_PIN 8
#define ledIN 5
#define ledOUT 11

NewSoftSerial rfid = NewSoftSerial( rxPin, txPin );

// The tag database consists of two parts. The first part is an array of
// tag values with each tag taking up 5 bytes. The second is a list of
// names with one name for each tag (ie: group of 5 bytes).
char* allowedTags[] = {
  "AABBCCDDEE",         // Tag 1
  "AABBCCDDEE",         // Tag 2
};

// List of names to associate with the matching tag IDs
char* tagName[] = {
  "User1",         // Tag 1
  "User2",         // Tag 2
};

// software version number:
char* software_version = "1.1";

// Check the number of tags defined
int numberOfTags = sizeof(allowedTags)/sizeof(allowedTags[0]);

int incomingByte = 0;    // To store incoming serial data

boolean locked = true;
int door_open = 0; // pseudo digital
boolean prev_status = false;
boolean auto_lock = true;
//unsigned long auto_lock_time = 0;
int auto_lock_delay = 5; // in seconds
int auto_lock_switch_time = 2; // in seconds
int status_led = 0;
unsigned long status_led_time = millis();
boolean status_led_on = false;

unsigned long status_breathe_time = millis();
int breathe_delay = 10;
boolean breathe_up = true;
int breathe_i = 15;

unsigned long last_successful_rfid_read = 0;
int rfid_success_timeout = 5000; // millis

float lock_speed = 1;

/**
 * Setup
 */
unsigned long time_door = millis();
unsigned long time_switch = millis();
long debounce = 500;

void setup() {
  pinMode(ledIN, OUTPUT);
  pinMode(ledOUT, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(ledIN, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(ledOUT, HIGH);
  delay(300);
  digitalWrite(ledIN, LOW);
  digitalWrite(ledOUT, LOW);

  pinMode(DRIVER_SWITCH, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(DRIVER_SWITCH, LOW);
  pinMode(DIR_PIN, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(DIR_PIN, LOW);
  pinMode(STEP_PIN, OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(STEP_PIN, LOW);
  pinMode(DOOR_SENS,INPUT);
  pinMode(DOOR_SW,INPUT);
  
  Serial.begin(9600);   // Serial port for connection to host
  rfid.begin(9600);      // Serial port for connection to RFID module

  Serial.println("RFID reader starting up");
  delay(1000);
  Serial.println("done");
  Serial.print("Software Version no: ");
  Serial.println(software_version);
  Serial.print("door locked: ");
  Serial.print(locked, DEC);
  Serial.print("\n");
  Serial.print("door closed: ");
  Serial.print(!door_open, DEC);
  Serial.print("\n");
}

/**
 * Loop
 * non-blocking version of each function!
 */
void loop() {
  readRFID();
  doorSensor();
  doorSwitch();
  statusLed();
}

void doorSensor(){
  // pseudo digital
  door_open = analogRead(DOOR_SENS);
  if(millis() - time_door > debounce){
    if (door_open <= 500 && prev_status == false){
      Serial.println("Door: opened");
      prev_status = true;
      locked = false;
    }else  if(door_open > 500 && prev_status == true){
      Serial.println("Door: closed");
      prev_status = false;
      if(auto_lock){
        Serial.println("locking door automatically...");
        delay(auto_lock_delay*1000); 
        lock();
        locked = true;
      }
    }
    time_door = millis();  
  }
}

void doorSwitch(){
  int dstimer = 0;
  int door_switch = analogRead(DOOR_SW); // pseudo digital
  if(millis() - time_switch > debounce && door_switch >= 300){
    while (analogRead(DOOR_SW) >= 300) {
      delay(100);
      dstimer++;
    }
    Serial.println(door_switch,DEC);
    Serial.println(dstimer,DEC);
    if (dstimer < auto_lock_switch_time*10) { //button has been pressed less than 2 seconds = 1000/100
        if (locked == false){
          Serial.println("door locked");
          locked = true;
          lock();
        }else if(locked == true){
          Serial.println("door unlocked");
          locked = false;
          unlock();
      }
    }else {
      // auto_unlock off/on
      if(auto_lock == true){
        Serial.println("auto_lock off");
        auto_lock = false;
      }else{
        Serial.println("auto_lock on");
        auto_lock = true;
      }
      analogWrite(ledIN, 0); // resetting output
    
    }
    time_switch = millis();  
  }
}

// breathing status led on the inside
void statusBreathe(){
  if( (status_breathe_time + breathe_delay) < millis() ){
    analogWrite(ledIN, breathe_i/1.5);
    status_breathe_time = millis();
    if (breathe_up == true){
      if (breathe_i > 150) {
        breathe_delay = 4;
      }
      if ((breathe_i > 125) && (breathe_i < 151)) {
        breathe_delay = 5;
      }
      if (( breathe_i > 100) && (breathe_i < 126)) {
        breathe_delay = 7;
      }
      if (( breathe_i > 75) && (breathe_i < 101)) {
        breathe_delay = 10;
      }
      if (( breathe_i > 50) && (breathe_i < 76)) {
        breathe_delay = 14;
      }
      if (( breathe_i > 25) && (breathe_i < 51)) {
        breathe_delay = 18;
      }
      if (( breathe_i > 1) && (breathe_i < 26)) {
        breathe_delay = 19;
      }
      breathe_i += 1;
      if( breathe_i >= 255 ){
        breathe_up = false;
      }
    }else{
      if (breathe_i > 150) {
        breathe_delay = 4;
      }
      if ((breathe_i > 125) && (breathe_i < 151)) {
        breathe_delay = 5;
      }
      if (( breathe_i > 100) && (breathe_i < 126)) {
        breathe_delay = 7;
      }
      if (( breathe_i > 75) && (breathe_i < 101)) {
        breathe_delay = 10;
      }
      if (( breathe_i > 50) && (breathe_i < 76)) {
        breathe_delay = 14;
      }
      if (( breathe_i > 25) && (breathe_i < 51)) {
        breathe_delay = 18;
      }
      if (( breathe_i > 1) && (breathe_i < 26)) {
        breathe_delay = 19;
      }
      breathe_i -= 1;
      if( breathe_i <= 15 ){
        breathe_up = true;
        breathe_delay = 970/2;
      }
    }
  }
}

void statusLed(){
  if(auto_lock == false){
    status_led = 150;
  }else{
    // set this to > 0 if you want the status led to blink in default mode
    status_led = 0; 
    if(status_led == 0){
      statusBreathe();
    }
  }
  if(millis() - status_led_time >= status_led && status_led != 0){
    status_led_on = !status_led_on;
    digitalWrite(ledIN,status_led_on);
    status_led_time = millis();
  }
}

void readRFID(){
  byte i         = 0;
  byte val       = 0;
  byte checksum  = 0;
  byte bytesRead = 0;
  byte tempByte  = 0;
  byte tagBytes[6];    // "Unique" tags are only 5 bytes but we need an extra byte for the checksum
  char tagValue[10];

  if(rfid.available()>0){
    if((val = rfid.read()) == 2) {        // Check for header
    bytesRead = 0;
    while (bytesRead < 12) {            // Read 10 digit code + 2 digit checksum
      val = rfid.read();
      Serial.print(val,BYTE);
      // Append the first 10 bytes (0 to 9) to the raw tag value
      if (bytesRead < 10)
      {
        tagValue[bytesRead] = val;
      }

      // Check if this is a header or stop byte before the 10 digit reading is complete
      if((val == 0x0D)||(val == 0x0A)||(val == 0x03)||(val == 0x02)) {
        break;                          // Stop reading
      }

      // Ascii/Hex conversion:
      if ((val >= '0') && (val <= '9')) {
        val = val - '0';
      }
      else if ((val >= 'A') && (val <= 'F')) {
        val = 10 + val - 'A';
      }

      // Every two hex-digits, add a byte to the code:
      if (bytesRead & 1 == 1) {
        // Make space for this hex-digit by shifting the previous digit 4 bits to the left
        tagBytes[bytesRead >> 1] = (val | (tempByte << 4));

        if (bytesRead >> 1 == 5) {                // If we're at the checksum byte,
          checksum ^= tagBytes[bytesRead >> 1];   // Calculate the checksum... (XOR)
        };
      } else {
        tempByte = val;                           // Store the first hex digit first
      };
  
      bytesRead++;                                // Ready to read next digit
    }
  

    // Send the result to the host connected via USB
    if (bytesRead == 12) {                        // 12 digit read is complete
      tagValue[10] = '\0';                        // Null-terminate the string

      Serial.print("Tag read: ");
      for (i=0; i<5; i++) {
        // Add a leading 0 to pad out values below 16
        if (tagBytes[i] < 16) {
          Serial.print("0");
        }
        Serial.print(tagBytes[i], HEX);
      }
      Serial.println();

      Serial.print("Checksum: ");
      Serial.print(tagBytes[5], HEX);
      Serial.println(tagBytes[5] == checksum ? " -- passed." : " -- error.");

      // Show the raw tag value
      //Serial.print("VALUE: ");
      //Serial.println(tagValue);
      Serial.print("door_open: ");
      Serial.println(door_open,DEC);
      // Search the tag database for this particular tag
      int tagId = findTag( tagValue );

      // Only fire the strike plate if this tag was found in the database
      if( tagId > 0 )
      {
        Serial.print("Authorized tag ID ");
        Serial.print(tagId);
        if(door_open > 500 && (last_successful_rfid_read + rfid_success_timeout) < millis() ){
          Serial.print(": unlocking for ");
          Serial.println(tagName[tagId - 1]);   // Get the name for this tag from the database
          unlock();
          last_successful_rfid_read = millis();
          delay(2000);
        }
      } else {
        Serial.println("Tag not authorized");
        //failSound();
        for (int i=0;i<7;i++){ // FIXXME nonblocking version?
          digitalWrite(ledOUT, HIGH);
          digitalWrite(ledIN, HIGH);
          delay(100);
          digitalWrite(ledOUT, LOW);
          digitalWrite(ledIN, LOW);
          delay(80);
        }
      }
      Serial.println();     // Blank separator line in output
    }

    bytesRead = 0;
  }
  }   
}

/**
 * Fire the relay to activate the strike plate for the configured
 * number of seconds.
 */
void unlock() {
  digitalWrite(ledOUT, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(ledIN, HIGH);
  delay(100);
  // if your stepper is powerful enough you can use full speed
  rotateDeg(-800, 0.6);
  digitalWrite(ledIN, LOW);  
  digitalWrite(ledOUT, LOW);
  locked = false;
}

void lock(){
  digitalWrite(ledOUT, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(ledIN, HIGH);
  delay(100);
  rotateDeg(800, 1);
  digitalWrite(ledIN, LOW);  
  digitalWrite(ledOUT, LOW);
  locked = true;
}

void rotate(int steps, float speed){
  
  // power driver
  digitalWrite(DRIVER_SWITCH,HIGH);
  delay(200);
  //rotate a specific number of microsteps (8 microsteps per step) - (negitive for reverse movement)
  //speed is any number from .01 -> 1 with 1 being fastest - Slower is stronger
  int dir = (steps > 0)? HIGH:LOW;
  steps = abs(steps);

  digitalWrite(DIR_PIN,dir); 

  float usDelay = (1/speed) * 250;

  for(int i=0; i < steps; i++){
    digitalWrite(STEP_PIN, HIGH);
    delayMicroseconds(usDelay); 

    digitalWrite(STEP_PIN, LOW);
    delayMicroseconds(usDelay);
  }

  // unpower driver
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(DRIVER_SWITCH,LOW);
} 

void rotateDeg(float deg, float speed){
  // power driver
  digitalWrite(DRIVER_SWITCH,HIGH);
  delay(200);
  //rotate a specific number of degrees (negative for reverse movement)
  //speed is any number from .01 -> 1 with 1 being fastest - Slower is stronger
  int dir = (deg > 0)? HIGH:LOW;
  digitalWrite(DIR_PIN,dir); 

  int steps = abs(deg)*(1/0.225);
  float usDelay = (1/speed) * 250;

  for(int i=0; i < steps; i++){
    digitalWrite(STEP_PIN, HIGH);
    delayMicroseconds(usDelay); 

    digitalWrite(STEP_PIN, LOW);
    delayMicroseconds(usDelay);
  }
  // unpower driver
  delay(200);
  digitalWrite(DRIVER_SWITCH,LOW);
}

/**
 * Search for a specific tag in the database
 */
int findTag( char tagValue[10] ) {
  for (int thisCard = 0; thisCard < numberOfTags; thisCard++) {
    // Check if the tag value matches this row in the tag database
    if(strcmp(tagValue, allowedTags[thisCard]) == 0)
    {
      // The row in the database starts at 0, so add 1 to the result so
      // that the card ID starts from 1 instead (0 represents "no match")
      return(thisCard + 1);
    }
  }
  // If we don't find the tag return a tag ID of 0 to show there was no match
  return(0);
}

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Non-blocking breathing led for arduino…

i needed a version of the ‘breathing led’ for a project which would not block everything else. button presses and the actual application should run without delay. after all it would just be cosmetics 😉

the result looks like this:

here is my non-blocking code for a breathing led with arduino:

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[sourcecode lang="c"]
/*
&quot;Breathing non-blocking sleep LED.&quot;
Florian Klien 2011
blog.flo.cx
based on work from Jeremy Saglimbeni (thecustomgeek.com)
*/
#define LED 5 // any PWM led will do
unsigned long status_breathe_time = millis();
int breathe_delay = 10;
boolean breathe_up = true;
int breathe_i = 15;

void setup() { // bring the LED up nicely from being off
  for(i = 0 ; i &lt;= 15; i+=1)
  {
    analogWrite(11, i);
    delay(5);
  }
}

void loop()
{
  nonBlockingBreathe();
  otherImportantNonBlockingStuff();
}

void nonBlockingBreathe(){
  if( (status_breathe_time + breathe_delay) &lt; millis() ){
    analogWrite(LED, breathe_i);
    status_breathe_time = millis();
    if (breathe_up == true){
      if (breathe_i &gt; 150) {
        breathe_delay = 4;
      }
      if ((breathe_i &gt; 125) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 151)) {
        breathe_delay = 5;
      }
      if (( breathe_i &gt; 100) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 126)) {
        breathe_delay = 7;
      }
      if (( breathe_i &gt; 75) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 101)) {
        breathe_delay = 10;
      }
      if (( breathe_i &gt; 50) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 76)) {
        breathe_delay = 14;
      }
      if (( breathe_i &gt; 25) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 51)) {
        breathe_delay = 18;
      }
      if (( breathe_i &gt; 1) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 26)) {
        breathe_delay = 19;
      }
      breathe_i += 1;
      if( breathe_i &gt;= 255 ){
        breathe_up = false;
      }
    }else{
      if (breathe_i &gt; 150) {
        breathe_delay = 4;
      }
      if ((breathe_i &gt; 125) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 151)) {
        breathe_delay = 5;
      }
      if (( breathe_i &gt; 100) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 126)) {
        breathe_delay = 7;
      }
      if (( breathe_i &gt; 75) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 101)) {
        breathe_delay = 10;
      }
      if (( breathe_i &gt; 50) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 76)) {
        breathe_delay = 14;
      }
      if (( breathe_i &gt; 25) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 51)) {
        breathe_delay = 18;
      }
      if (( breathe_i &gt; 1) &amp;&amp; (breathe_i &lt; 26)) {
        breathe_delay = 19;
      }
      breathe_i -= 1;
      if( breathe_i &lt;= 15 ){
        breathe_up = true;
        breathe_delay = 970;
      }
    }
  }
}
[/sourcecode]

original code came from thecustomgeek.com

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1 TB deaddrop speicher…

seit meinem letzten eintrag zum ersten grazer deaddrop hat sich einiges getan.
die anzahl an deaddrops dürfte sich etwa verdoppelt haben und der gesamte speicherplatz, der jetzt zur verfügung steht, ist auf 1 TB angewachsen.
Graz hat mittlerweile insgesamt 4 deaddrops (schwimmschulkai, grazbachgasse, lichtenfelsgasse, schillerstrasse)

lustigerweise scheint Belgrad einen sehr hohen bedarf zu haben. dabei schlägt Belgrad sogar New York City.

Deaddrops in New York City und Belgrad
Deaddrops in New York City und Belgrad (Beograd)

UPDATE 110503 1200: ich hab die deaddrops in graz nochmal gezählt.
es sind jetzt 6:
schwimmschulkai, grazbachgasse, lichtenfelsgasse, schillerstrasse, alte poststrasse, inffeldgasse

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How to open magnet links on a remote transmission daemon with one click…

i’m using transmission for my regular bittorrent needs. it has a nice simple interface and can even be run as a daemon on a server. therefor it even offers a nice looking web interface.

Note: if you are running gentoo or a system that uses the xdg-utils with xdg-open, you might want to look at this howto.

since my working machine is not always running but my server is, this is where transmission is set up.

Transmission Web Interface

the web interface provides a nice mask to setup your torrents. you can upload a .torrent file (to your remote machine) or just an URL of a torrent or most recently a magnet link. this is very handy since you don’t need to handle any .torrent files locally. just copy that link and you are done.

when you are running a torrent client directly on the machine you pick out your torrents clicking on the magnet link will most likely start the download immediately without having to copy that link. this kind of comfort was missing with the remote version of transmission.

so i hacked around to solve that.

here is what you need to do:

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Dead Drops…

dead drops sind eine tolle idee. sie führen einem vor augen dass man durch keine behörde dieser welt die lokale verteilte offline interaktion zwischen menschen kontrollieren kann.

der erste Grazer Dead Drop
was ist die idee hinter dead drops? dead drops, zu deutsch toter briefkasten, sind verstecke bei denen man etwas für jemanden hinterlegen kann ohne sich treffen zu müssen. diese wurden gerne von spionen genutzt.

auf die heutige zeit umgelegt sind das offline datenträger (usb-sticks) die an ‘geheimen’ öffentlichen orten hinterlegt – sprich: eingemauert oder angeklebt werden und so jedem zugänglich sind. jeder darf auf dem datenträger etwas ablegen und jeder darf daten herunterladen.

seit heute hat graz auch einen dead drop. hoffentlich kommen noch einige dazu. gesamt sind jetzt weltweit etwa 397 GB speicherplatz frei zugänglich.

ich bin wirklich gespannt ob und wenn in welche richtung diese bewegung die ganze copyright und file sharing diskussion führt.

update:
es hat keine 3 tage gedauert und schon gibt es einen zweiten dead drop in graz. weiter so. 🙂

update 11 04 06:
es kamen noch 2 dead drops hinzu: lichtenfelsgasse, schillerstrasse

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